Is A Company the Ship of Theseus?

My first big company job back in 2002 taught me a lot. I learned all about the nuances of the (at the time) 5,000-person business I had joined. I learned the people and the products. I learned how to get stuff done. And I witnessed echoes of the history of the company-stories about the previous CEO, lessons from the previous incarnations, tales of the previous products-before I got there.

I ended up staying about five years and saw the company merge with another, lose its name, change CEOs, change CEOs again, change CEOs again, change CEOs again, and then split from the acquirer. Along the way, most of the people whom I knew at the company moved on.

Recently, I was at an event and met that first CEO that I mentioned (the one that was there when I joined). He was on to running another company that’s doing very well. We talked about our old employer. We both realized that though the name, office, and products are mostly the same, the company is a totally different entity at this point-completely foreign to even him, the former CEO that ran it all.

As Gainsight’s grown, we haven’t merged with anyone or (thankfully) changed CEOs since I joined. But our team has evolved as we’ve scaled. New folks come in. Long-time employees move on. We believe in “The Alliance” by Reid Hoffman from LinkedIn: the idea that our company is a partnership between the business and our teammates-and the partnership needs to be renewed on a regular basis. If a teammate finds a compelling opportunity for their next phase outside of the company, we are excited for her or him.

But all of this change gets my “Mehtaphysical” brain thinking about what the fundamental nature of a company truly is. What’s the persistence of its identity? It’s not the people. It’s not the CEO. It’s not the products. It’s not even the name. How can the company be the same thing if every piece of it changes over time?

The Greek essayist Plutarch wrote of “Theseus’ paradox,” which rings true for me. From Wikipedia:

The ship of Theseus, also known as Theseus’ paradox, is a thought experiment that raises the question of whether an object that has had all of its components replaced remains fundamentally the same object. The paradox is most notably recorded by Plutarch in Life of Theseus from the late first century. Plutarch asked whether a ship that had been restored by replacing every single wooden part remained the same ship.

As a company grows and changes, every plank of its scaffolding eventually gets replaced. Maybe a few pieces remain from the original, but the majority of it is continuously different. Yet the company moves on.

You can look at this one of two ways: you can be melancholy about the “original ship” and worry that things are “different now,” or you can be energized that the ship is always new and beautiful thanks to the energy of the employees, customers, shareholders, and others that choose to work with it now. Our ships and companies can be born anew every day. Pretty inspiring, if you look at it that way.

Then again, the persistence of identity is highly questionable, as the Percy Bysshe Shelley tells us in Ozymandias!

I met a traveller from an antique land

Who said: Two vast and trunkless legs of stone

Stand in the desert. Near them, on the sand,

Half sunk, a shattered visage lies, whose frown,

And wrinkled lip, and sneer of cold command,

Tell that its sculptor well those passions read

Which yet survive, stamped on these lifeless things,

The hand that mocked them and the heart that fed:

And on the pedestal these words appear:

‘My name is Ozymandias, king of kings:

Look on my works, ye Mighty, and despair!’

Nothing beside remains. Round the decay

Of that colossal wreck, boundless and bare

The lone and level sands stretch far away.

The post Is A Company the Ship of Theseus? appeared first on Customer Success Software | Gainsight.

11 Considerations for an Enterprise Customer Success Management Pilot

As B2B companies innovate in their business models, offering flexible and customer-aligned delivery models like subscription, cloud, pay-as-you-go, and outcomes-based pricing, they are realizing the increasing power that their clients have-and the increasing ROI from investing in retaining and growing their customer base.

At the same time, these B2B companies have implemented a myriad of systems over the last decade-from CRM to Marketing Automation to Online Support to Billing-allowing them to have greater insights into their client bases than ever before.

With this convergence of business need and data availability, B2B innovators are going beyond the normal organizations of Sales and Service/Support to create a new Customer Success Management (CSM) team focused on proactively driving client outcomes using data.

However, for most mature companies, this Customer Success concept requires a great deal of consideration. Where should the team live in the company? What are its responsibilities? How does it relate to other functions (e.g., Sales/Marketing/Support)? How should it be measured? Where does the budget come from?

At Gainsight, we’ve worked with hundreds of large companies on the journey to Customer Success and have seen what works and what doesn’t in terms of launching “pilot” experiments in Customer Success.

1. Define the Core Business Driver for Customer Success

Because Customer Success is such a “hot” concept, it has also become an overloaded term. Customer Success can be applied to adoption, renewals, expansion, advocacy-anything that involves getting more from your client base by driving greater results. However, in a pilot, you need to think deeply about the specific goals for your business. For some businesses, a lack of Customer Success causes churn. For other, more sticky businesses, the impact is slower expansion. The below table articulates example pilot goals for different types of businesses.

Unique Aspect of Business Current Situation Customer Success Pilot Customer Success Outcome
Complex onboarding Friction during onboarding causing downstream churn CSM team focused on onboarding phase Less “onboarding churn” leading to higher renewals
Seat-based pricing model Overselling and low adoption leading to churn and down-sell CSM team focused on adoption phase (deployment and adoption of unused seats) Increased percentage adoption leading to less churn and downsell
Sticky platform-style product with “land and expand” modules Slow adoption hurting expansion efforts CSM team focused on adoption phase Faster time-to-value leads to faster next sales opportunity at customer
Long-term contract product or service Poor customer satisfaction hurting advocacy and new sales CSM team focused on satisfaction and business value Improved client business value alignment leads to higher client satisfaction (e.g., Net Promoter Score or referenceability), yielding greater advocacy and new sales
Competitive product category with less client commitment Company surprised by churns to competitors CSM team focused on early warning to risk Earlier action on risk leads to reduced competitive churn
Large enterprise-targeted product Customer satisfaction low due to client-product team collaboration, resulting in slower new sales CSM team focused on product adoption and collaboration Greater client engagement and adoption leads to higher satisfaction, yielding increased advocacy and new sales

2. Define the Starting Point Organization

Like most new initiatives in large organizations, innovation comes from a combination of situation (what group you sit in) and motivation (your desire to change). However, we’ve found some patterns in logical starting points for CSM teams. In general, the “ideal” CSM is almost like a unicorn: hard to find in real life because the job involves a blend of:

  • Product knowledge
  • Domain knowledge
  • Strategic thinking
  • Relationship skills
  • Project orientation
  • Task orientation
Starting Point Product knowledge Domain knowledge Strategic thinking Relationship skills Project orientation Task orientation
Training Medium Low Low Medium Medium Medium
AM Low Medium Medium High Low Low
TAM High Medium Low Medium Medium Medium
PS High High Medium Medium High Medium
Consulting Low High High High High Low
Support Medium Low Low Low Low High
Product High High Medium Medium Low Low

We most frequently see organizations with technical offerings starting with the TAM or PS groups, while organizations with transactional offerings starting with the AM group.

3. Define the Product to Start With

For many large organizations, the vision for Customer Success spans across the entire product line. But where do you start? Successful pilots involve one or a few product lines and create proof points to continue scaling.

Again, there is no perfect answer, but consider the following:

Starting Point Pros Cons
Mature product
  • Likely large source of revenue for the company, so impact would be big
  • Likely high profile clients
  • Involves significant organizational alignment across the company
  • Sometimes unclear what differential impact of CSM team will be, given others involved
Mature product in transition (e.g., perpetual moving to subscription pricing)
  • “Burning platform” for change
  • Likely attention from IT and other stakeholders
  • Significant degree of change management
New product
  • Can “do it right” from beginning
  • Likely newer pricing model (e.g., subscription) that demands CSM
  • Because fewer people involved, easier to tell impact
  • Less dollar impact and lower profile clients
Recently-acquired product
  • Likely standalone team, so easier to drive change
  • Take one step toward integration of the acquisition
  • May have existing CSM approach to rationalize

In general, we find CSM pilots starting with newer or acquired product lines or with product lines in transition.

4. Define Segment to Start With

Even within a product line, you likely have multiple tiers of customers.


At Gainsight, we define three canonical models for Customer Success for these tiers:

  • High Touch Customer Success Management: Strong coordination around a client’s Success Plan and client journey across CSM, Sales, Services, Support, and Product
  • Mid Touch Customer Success Management: Trigger-driven, “just in time” Customer Success based upon data (e.g., client is six months from renewal and only using one out of three modules)
  • Tech Touch Customer Success Management: Fully-automated, personalized Customer Success using email and other tools


Segment Pros Cons
High Touch Impacts largest clients
  • Harder to tell differential impact of CSM team
  • Sometimes territorial issues with other groups
Mid Touch Significant dollars but usually gets limited attention Requires process-oriented approach
Tech Touch Least amount of change management Sometimes have to coordinate with Marketing (especially for automated 1:many outreaches)

We most frequently see CSM Pilots starting with the mid-touch segment, given the pros and cons abvoe.

Define Pilot Clients

Slicing the world further, you may need to take your segment of your product line and start with a limited set of clients. If you choose a High Touch or Mid Touch model, you might be gated by the size of your initial team.

As a rule of thumb, High Touch CSMs often manage one to 25 customers while Mid Touch CSMs range from 25 to a few hundred.

How do you decide which clients to pick? Some progressive CSM pilots involve picking a cohort of clients for whom the company believes there is substantial “white space” or expansion potential. Other pilots are focused on A/B testing-taking a uniform group and dividing into a slice (e.g., 80%) that gets a CSM and a slice that does not. Regardless, be thoughtful in your initial client selection.

5. Define What Data Your Team Needs

Data is at once the greatest opportunity and greatest challenge for most large companies. Businesses are awash in data but often struggle to leverage it. For the CSM pilot, you need to define a practical and achievable list:

  • CRM

    • Customer Name: This is sometimes complex with customer “hierarchies” (e.g., parent and subsidiary businesses)
    • CSM: Where do you track the CSM assigned per customer? Is it a field in the CRM?
    • Spend: Where do you track the spend per client for the product in question? Is it accurate? Does it need to be 100% right or just directional?
    • Renewal Date: If you have contracted businesses, where is this information stored?
    • Tier: If you want to focus on a specific client segment, how will you filter the data?
  • Entitlements: Products/services under contract
  • Support: You may want access to support ticket history for the client.
  • Community: If you have an online community, can you track how active a given client is?
  • Surveys: Client satisfaction surveys are often essential for CSMs.
  • Professional Services: How can you see which client projects are on time versus over?
  • Learning: How can you track which clients have been trained versus not?
  • Marketing: Can you see which clients are engaging in events, webinars, and emails?
  • Billing: Can you view Accounts Receivable for a client to determine early satisfaction issues?
  • Telemetry: If you have an online product or service, what can you see about client usage?

In our experience, CRM data is a must and organizations pick 2-3 other data sources (most commonly support and survey data).

6. Define What Systems Your Team Will Use

Depending on the scope of the pilot, you may want a formal system or you may start with a spreadsheet. Consider a formal system if you want:

  • Sharing across the team and with other stakeholders
  • Trackability and historical trending
  • Process implementation and consistency
  • Automation

7. Define IT Involvement

Depending on the data and systems needs, you might need IT help. In most companies, IT is a precious resource, so make sure to make your case early. Or you can consider third party managed service providers that can run CSM platforms and data architectures on your behalf.

8. Define What’s Out of Scope

By definition, a pilot is just a starting point. As such, make sure to clarify what you don’t plan to accomplish in the pilot. We already covered focusing on product lines, tiers, and customers. But even within this, define what to “punt” for later. As an example, unless you have tremendous volume of client data, you probably want to punt “machine learning” and “predictive analytics” to a secondary phase once you understand your processes. Similarly, you might define the Minimum Viable Product (MVP) for the pilot to be focused on the actions of the CSM team-versus visibility to the rest of the organization. Finally, you may want to restrict the pilot to one region or geographical area.

9. Define How You Will Communicate

Speaking of the rest of the organization, successful CSM pilots require powerful and consistent communication. Define a communication program for each of your stakeholders:

  • Team: How often will you meet with your pilot CSM Team? Many pilots involve daily “scrum” meetings to ensure rapid progress. How will you coach each CSM in one-on-ones? How prescriptive will you be on processes? You may also want a weekly forum to recognize successes and share learnings.
  • Cross-functional: How will you update the rest of the org on your pilot progress? We’d suggest a weekly newsletter on highs, lows, and learnings from the pilot, along with a few formal review meetings.
  • Clients: What expectation are you setting for clients? How do you introduce the CSM program? What’s in it for them? Even in the MVP, it’s important to have polished client-facing materials on the CSM program.

10. Define Success Criteria

Going back to the business goals, make sure to set expectations upfront of achievable metrics that can be used to measure the success of the pilot. At Gainsight, we try to distinguish Lagging Indicators-the financial outcomes of Customer Success like renewals, retention, and upsell-from Leading Indicators that can be moved more quickly. Leading Indicators can include:

  • A score measuring client adoption volume (e.g., Daily Active Users)
  • A score measuring client sophistication (how well they use your product or service)
  • A customer satisfaction metric like C-SAT or Net Promoter Score
  • The percentage of clients that are referenceable
  • The number of upsell leads sent to sales
  • The number of “at risk” accounts that were moved back to health

Consider aggregating these into a “scorecard” for the overall health of the CSM pilot.

11. Define the Roadmap

While we emphasize focus, it’s likely that Customer Success will become big in your company-if it hasn’t already. As such, you may end up with multiple, overlapping, and confusing Customer Success initiatives across many product lines and departments. Consider a Customer Success Steering Committee or Center of Excellence to bring these initiatives together to ensure internal efficiency and a smooth external client experience.

Good luck!

The post 11 Considerations for an Enterprise Customer Success Management Pilot appeared first on Customer Success Software | Gainsight.

Why You Need Customer Success Early

You might not know this, but isn’t my first company. I actually founded a previous company, Semantria, which built the world’s first massively scalable sentiment analysis cloud service. Semantria was successfully sold to text analytics company Lexalytics in 2014.

While I’m proud of what my team and I were able to accomplish at Semantria, as with many first-time founders, I made my share of mistakes. In particular, I didn’t hire a customer success pro early enough, and that impeded Semantria’s early growth.

Before I dive any further into what I did wrong, and what I should have done differently, it’s worth highlighting the typical lifecycle of a startup. Paul Graham’s classic “startup curve” retains its accuracy.


In particular, I want to focus on the first three stages: “TechCrunch of Initiation,” “Wearing Off of Novelty” and “Trough of Sorrow” because it’s these that are important to the story. During Semantria’s TechCrunch of Initiation we quickly onboarded numerous new accounts as the company benefited from positive media buzz. Many prospects were intrigued by the idea that they could get sentiment analysis in a matter of minutes for less than $1,000; technology which was previously available only as on-prem software for large companies and required expensive servers, on top of the $100K a year or more in licensing costs.

It was an incredible and exhilarating time but our rapid growth also left us vulnerable to the usual growing pains. During the TechCrunch of Initiation every company enjoys the buzz that comes with the novelty of having a new product on the market. Silicon Valley is full of innovators and early adopters eager to try out what might be the next big thing. But things eventually change. New startups are founded or emerge from stealth and the aura of novelty naturally passes to them. Suddenly you aren’t getting a flood of inbound interest and have to cultivate your existing contacts and proactively reach out to new prospects in order to grow.

That’s exactly what happened to us at Semantria. Unfortunately, without a dedicated customer success professional we lacked the internal resources to properly nurture the large number of accounts we onboarded during our TechCrunch of Initiation. As the Wearing Off of Novelty inevitably passed into the Trough of Sorrow we weren’t able to support and retain all of the accounts that we had onboarded in our first stage as company. The problem was that as a small startup we didn’t have enough people to give each account the attention they deserved. I’m confident that if we had had someone who was 100% focused on customer success this could have been avoided.

Now, everyone knows that your existing customers are important. According to Inc “acquiring new customers is expensive (five to ten times the cost of retaining an existing one), and the average spend of a repeat customer is a whopping 67 percent more than a new one [emphasis added].” However, as a young company the key is to remember how important your existing customer base is, and to invest in internal resources accordingly. In particular, companies need to focus on churn metrics from day one.

For a SaaS model I look at the major periods in a customer life cycle as follows:

  1. Customer Onboarding
  2. First 90 Days (Higher-Touch Period)
  3. Rest of the Year (Lower-Touch Period)
  4. Last 90 Days Before Renewal (Higher-Touch Period)

During periods two and four having a full-time customer success professional around to assist customers as they learn to use your product and to reignite customer love for your product 90 days before renewal is absolutely critical. This may seem obvious, and more and more companies are taking notice by hiring customer success professionals, but when you’re a small company looking to minimize your burn rate a customer success professional can seem like an unnecessary luxury.

Trust me. It’s not. In today’s world of SaaS delivery models and extensive customer choice you have to continually deliver value to customers, not just at the point of sale. Looking back, if there was one thing I could tell myself when I first founded Semantria it’s that every dollar spent on customer success will earn a tenfold return over a customer’s lifecycle. As a more experienced founder I knew that I wanted to hire customer success early at and I’ve been impressed by the results that our customer success manager has delivered within just a few weeks of joining our company.

I hope it doesn’t take you until your second company to learn from my mistake. Take it from me and add customer success to your team early!

The post Why You Need Customer Success Early appeared first on Customer Success Software | Gainsight.

The 10 Best Social Media SlideShares of 2016 to Get You Ready for 2017

With all the great articles out there, it can sometimes be hard to catch up on every single one of them.

So imagine being able to go through a 2,000-word article in a minute or two. Or even faster.

Enter: SlideShare!

With SlideShare, great ideas and strategies are condensed into a couple dozen concise slides. For marketers, it’s a powerful content network: Over 70 million people visit SlideShare, and we had several Buffer SlideShares that got over 100,000 views apiece. For those eager to learn, the visual element of SlideShare also helps us absorb the information faster and remember it for a longer period of time, compared to reading texts.

So, here’re 10 of the best social media SlideShares of 2016 to enhance your social media marketing in 2017. I’d love to hear if you have a favorite in this list or a favorite you’d want to add.

The 10 Best Social Media SlideShares of 2016

10 Best Social Media SlideShares to Enhance Your Social Media Marketing in 2017

1. Facebook is completely changing viral videos – Take advantage of it

(via 500 Startups)

Video marketing seems to be rising to its peak – 83 percent of marketers said they’d like to create more video content if they didn’t have restraints such as time and resources. This is the slide deck that viral video creator Karen Cheng used at her Weapon of Mass Distribution 2016 talk on making viral videos. There’s a 30-minute recording of her talk if you are curious to learn more.

My favorite slide:


A key takeaway for marketers:

If you want to spread an online video – or even a blog post or an idea- write the news headline first. Think about what makes a compelling news headline. Then, let it inform the creative decisions you make during the video-making process.

For reporters to want to cover news about your business, they need an attractive headline for the news. Karen’s first viral video took off because the idea “Microsoft employee quits with a song” makes a great headline. That attracted reporters to write about it.

2. How to wow! with a presentation

(via Canva)

While this SlideShare deck is on creating stunning presentations, I think it’s great for designing awesome social media images, too. The design experts at Canva share how you can create engaging graphics using the right play of text and design.

My favorite slide:


A key takeaway for marketers:

When you are creating your social media images, use relevant photos and less text to effectively convey your message.

If you can use self-explanatory images – images that can completely explain a concept without someone having to read any additional text – that would be even better. They are easy to understand and highly shareable.

3. 24 Awesome Infographic Ideas to Inspire Your Next Beautiful Creation

(via Piktochart)

Just like SlideShares, infographics are a great way to present information in a concise, easy-to-understand manner. They are not only great for blog posts but also shareable on social media. In this SlideShare deck, the team at Piktochart shares twenty-four cool ideas for your next infographic.

My favorite slide:


A key takeaway for marketers:

Creating an infographic is very similar to writing a blog post. One way to look at it is that an infographic is just another method of presenting the information in a blog post. Content ideas you have for blog posts can most likely be used to create infographics, too.

At Buffer, we like to use infographics in blog posts directly (such as this) or to update our best-performing blog posts with infographics (such as this).

4. How to Create and Use Snapchat’s New Custom Geofilters

(via Gary Vaynerchuk)

We have written about Snapchat and its custom Geofilters before. But I thought it’d be great to hear from one of the top Snapchat influencers himself – Gary Vaynerchuck. In this SlideShare deck, Gary shares why you should use Snapchat’s geofilters and how to create effective geofilters.

My favorite slide:


A key takeaway for marketers:

Snapchat geofilters are currently an undervalued way to reach your audience. For example, Chris Hall, the co-founder of a sneaker app, Kickster, was able to get $0.001 cost per thousand impressions (CPMs) for his Snapchat filter and generated over 10.5 million views of his filter in just seven hours.

From our State of Social 2016 report, we found that only 12 percent of marketers and brands are on Snapchat and only 5 percent are spending on Snapchat filters at the moment. If you want to stand out, Snapchat could be the platform to do so as the audience there isn’t saturated with ads and sponsored filters just yet. By the end of 2017, that could be different.

5. 125 Clickass Copywriting Tips

(via Barry Feldman)

Barry Feldman has more than 25 years of experience in copywriting, and in this slide deck, he shares 125 copywriting quick tips. These tips are organized into 14 chapters such as headlines, content, style, credibility, and more.

My favorite slide:


A key takeaway for marketers:

Write more than one headline. For each of our blog posts, we sometimes write between 20 to 30 headlines. This not only helps us find the headline that feels best, it also gives us headline ideas for our social media posts.

6. The Science Behind Effective Facebook Ad Campaigns

(via unfunnel)

HubSpot and AdEspresso teamed up to analyze more than 100,000 Facebook ads. Through the study, they found 9 best practices for Facebook advertising such as most popular headline length, most popular Call-To-Action (CTA), and more. In this SlideShare deck, they also shared their analyses of several great Facebook ads.

My favorite slide:


(Click to view a larger version.)

A key takeaway for marketers:

While targeting the right audience for your Facebook ads is important, don’t neglect the design of your Facebook ads. There are 6 key design components for a typical Facebook ad: headline, text, description, caption, CTA button, and image.

From our State of Social 2016 report, we also found that 91 percent of marketers are spending on Facebook ads. This might indicate the effectiveness of Facebook ads to deal with the decline in organic reach on Facebook.

7. 13 Tips for Creating Facebook Ads that Convert

(via HubSpot)

HubSpot and AdEspresso asked five world-class experts in Facebook advertising for their top tips and insider tricks for creating successful, effective Facebook ad campaigns. This SlideShare deck features 13 short, digestible, and actionable tips for creating Facebook ads that convert.

My favorite slide:


A key takeaway for marketers:

Explore all the features that Facebook’s advertising platform has to offer. Advanced features such as the Power Editor, Unpublished Posts, Lookalike Audiences, and Custom Audiences give you the ability to be very specific with your ad targeting.

If you want to learn more about these features, Facebook has a comprehensive Advertiser Help Center with guides for beginner, intermediate, and advanced advertisers.

8. Top 10 Social Media Advertising Hacks of All Time

(via WordStream)

WordStream founder Larry Kim reveals his 10 strategies for getting the most value out of your social media advertising efforts. They include tips to drive more traffic to your content and increase your conversion rates.

My favorite slide:


A key takeaway for marketers:

Promote only your best content – or “unicorns” as Larry calls them. Such content tends to have a higher engagement level, which can lead to more ad impressions and lower cost per engagement.

An easy way to find such content is to look for top performing content that you post to Twitter organically. Then, you can pay to boost these tweets, share the content organically on Facebook, and pay to promote them, too. Since this content did well on Twitter, it is likely to do well on Facebook too.

9. Search Content vs. Social Content

(via SEMrush)

Ever published a piece of quality content and received no engagement on social media? Or it doesn’t rank on Google? “It’s not your content. It’s your content marketing strategy,” says Daniel Hochuli, Head of Strategy at King Content. In this SlideShare deck, Daniel breaks down the differences between search content and social content and explains how to create them.

My favorite slide:


(Click to view a larger version.)

A key takeaway for marketers:

Not all content is meant to rank highly on Google and take off on social media – though, it’s great if it does! When you are creating content, a framework you could use is that of Search Content vs Social Content. The idea is to optimize content for search and for social media separately.

There are also other ways to categorize your content such as the Brand Content vs Direct Response Content approach or the Customer Awareness Lifecycle framework.

10. Why Social Media Chat Bots Are the Future of Communication

(via Jan Rezab)

Here’s one for the future! According to Jan Rezab, founder and chairman of Socialbakers, social media chat bots will be the next big trend. While chat bots are mainly used for e-commerce at the moment, they are also being used for entertainment, Internet of Things, community, and more.

My favorite slide:


A key takeaway for marketers:

It’s worth looking into social media chat bots. For instance, KLM Royal Dutch Airlines’ Facebook Messenger bot was used more than 115,000 times in the first month!

Social media seems to be moving from a one-to-many channel to a one-to-few or even one-to-one channel in several aspects. This can be seen from the rise of chat bots and one-to-one messaging features such as Instagram’s newest feature, disappearing photos, and videos in Instagram Direct.

If you want to be at the front of the next big social media trend, chat bots might be a good bet.

Over to you

Did any of the SlideShare decks stand out for you?

Did I miss your favorite social media SlideShare deck? Feel free to share it with me in the comments below. It’d be great to hear from you!